AMERICA’S JEWISH WOMEN A History From Colonial Times to Today By Pamela S. Nadell
Considering that the very definition of Judaism and what it means to be a Jew has changed so much over the last three centuries of American history, it’s a near impossible endeavor — yeoman’s work — to capture succinctly the role of Jewish women over that long span. But that is the task that Pamela S. Nadell has set for herself in “America’s Jewish Women”: summarizing what cannot really be summarized. She’s mostly successful.
Nadell is clearly aware of the magnitude of the job. In her prologue, she sets the stage for her analysis by introducing Grace Mendes Seixas Nathan and her great-granddaughter, the famed author of “The New Colossus,” Emma Lazarus. Nadell does so in order to make a point: While both were Jewish American women, they lived in dramatically different eras, self-actualizing and contributing differently as a result. They were constrained by the mores of their times and sought to redefine the roles handed down to them, just as Jewish women have done throughout American history, Nadell argues.
The book proceeds chronologically and is stronger in some time periods than others. Nadell’s recounting of the colonial era, for example, is fuzzy. She muses about the life of Rachel Hendricks Samuel, widow to New York’s Judah Samuel as of 1702, wondering if the woman could read a prayer book. “That is doubtful,” she concludes. “But perhaps in her short life — she was probably 42 when she died — she had prayed over candles kindled in her two brass candlesticks, as commanded of Jewish women on Sabbaths and holiday eves.” Much of this section is replete with similar conjecture, which makes sense. After all, at this point, Jewish women tended to spend most of their adult lives being pregnant, nursing, caring for children or some combination thereof. None of these pastimes lend themselves particularly well to quiet contemplation, or to crafting long written musings. Unresolved elements of the history, like the absence of a Jewish ritual bath, or mikvah, in New York until 1730 and in Philadelphia until 1786 are raised, but not adequately addressed.
Painting a vivid picture of a golden land that often defaulted on its promises, Nadell creates an extremely readable portrait of Jewish women collectively realizing their power to change their destiny — whether through creating charitable organizations or joining forces in the broader workers’ movement. It’s especially pleasurable to hear stories of Jewish activism around the battle for women’s suffrage and the availability of birth control — both of which gave American women as a whole more agency and capacity for self-determination. As The Forward reported during the age of labor strikes, Jewish women were “the fighters, the picketers, the agitators” of the age — badges that many of us would still wear proudly today.
Nadell examines how World War II and anti-Semitism spurred on American Zionist activism (which could easily be the subject of its own book). From Betty Friedan to Sonia Pressman, Bella Abzug and Gerda Lerner, Jewish women had an outsize role in the feminist struggle. As the Supreme Court justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg famously quipped: “What is the difference between a bookkeeper in the garment district and a Supreme Court justice? One generation.” And, I would add, Jewish women realizing the power of their voices, intellects and ambitions.
Unfortunately the influence of Jewish women on the arts and entertainment doesn’t receive as much airtime. (The nonpareil entertainment icon Barbra Streisand only gets a one-line mention in the context of “Yentl” as “an American Jewish feminist filmmaker” — a shande!)
“America’s Jewish Women” is a thoughtful history of a group of diverse, passionate, contemplative, vocal and dynamic women, and is a welcome addition to the American historical canon. It’s truly remarkable to read this book and appreciate how these women — numerically small, qualitatively great — made such a tremendous impact on this nation.B:
财神凤凰天机图“【突】【破】【不】【了】？【黑】【莲】【借】【你】【力】【量】【用】【用】！”【江】【离】【直】【接】【调】【动】【黑】【莲】【的】【力】【量】，【他】【的】【力】【量】【瞬】【间】【突】【破】【了】【成】【丹】【期】【大】【圆】【满】【境】【界】，【直】【接】【跨】【入】【六】【尘】【境】！ 【跨】【越】【一】【个】【大】【等】【级】【的】【境】【界】【之】【力】【冲】【来】，【那】【所】【谓】【的】【难】【关】【瞬】【间】【被】【冲】【的】【炸】【开】！ 【那】【声】【音】【如】【同】【天】【崩】【地】【裂】【一】【般】，【显】【然】【这】【种】【强】【行】【冲】【关】【的】【行】【为】，【产】【生】【了】【极】【大】【的】【反】【噬】【之】【力】。 【可】【惜】，【在】【黑】【莲】【的】【力】【量】【守】【护】【下】，
【此】【时】【除】【了】【头】【颅】【和】【双】【臂】，【赵】【彦】【身】【体】【的】【其】【他】【部】【位】【的】【血】【肉】【早】【已】【被】【吞】【噬】【殆】【尽】。 【又】【迈】【了】【一】【步】。 【这】【一】【步】【迈】【得】【更】【加】【艰】【辛】，【更】【加】【困】【难】。 【剧】【痛】【早】【已】【将】【赵】【彦】【麻】【痹】，【赵】【彦】【此】【时】【唯】【有】【一】【道】【意】【志】【仍】【在】【坚】【持】【着】，【下】【意】【识】【的】【向】【前】【走】。 【啪】！ 【赵】【彦】【又】【走】【了】【一】【步】，【此】【时】【前】【方】【已】【经】【露】【出】【一】【丝】【若】【隐】【若】【现】【的】【景】【象】。 【血】【雾】【正】【是】【从】【前】【方】【奔】【涌】【出】【来】【的】
【宁】【濛】【的】【这】【个】【答】【案】，【还】【真】【的】【是】【出】【乎】【许】【闲】【愚】【的】【预】【料】【之】【外】。 “【蓝】【星】【世】【界】【上】【的】【传】【承】，【本】【身】【就】【是】【出】【自】【妖】【魔】【世】【界】【的】【妖】【魔】。” “【妖】【魔】【世】【界】【之】【中】，【可】【不】【止】【是】【只】【有】【妖】【魔】，【也】【有】【人】【类】，【也】【有】【修】【者】【传】【承】。” “【妖】【魔】【世】【界】【广】【阔】，【历】【史】【已】【经】【超】【过】【百】【万】【年】【了】。” “【里】【面】【的】【那】【些】【宗】【门】，【还】【有】【所】【谓】【的】【皇】【朝】，【传】【承】【都】【是】【超】【过】【十】【万】【年】【以】【上】。”
【此】【言】【一】【出】，【满】【堂】【哗】【然】。 【凤】【凰】【火】【乃】【上】【古】【神】【火】，【万】【年】【不】【出】【的】【圣】【物】，【偏】【生】【还】【在】【漫】【长】【岁】【月】【里】【生】【出】【了】【灵】【性】，【想】【得】【到】【它】【实】【在】【太】【难】，【当】【年】**【妙】【心】【得】【到】【后】【惹】【得】【多】【少】【人】【眼】【红】，【她】【陨】【落】【后】【又】【有】【多】【少】【人】【挖】【空】【了】【心】【思】【想】【要】【将】【无】【主】【神】【火】【收】【入】【囊】【中】，【那】【是】【无】【所】【不】【用】【其】【极】，【什】【么】【招】【数】【都】【使】【上】【了】，【可】【是】【连】【个】【火】【毛】【儿】【都】【没】【见】【过】。 【如】【今】【清】【都】【帝】【君】【这】【要】【求】
“【迭】【州】【虽】【说】【和】【我】【国】【有】【来】【往】，【但】【也】【不】【多】，【咱】【们】【商】【人】【委】【实】【难】【做】。” “【可】【不】【是】，【光】【进】【去】【出】【来】【就】【很】【麻】【烦】，【还】【要】【一】【系】【列】【证】【明】【文】【蝶】，【可】【不】【累】【人】？” 【这】【客】【栈】【里】【的】【大】【多】【数】【是】【来】【往】【的】【商】【人】，【讨】【论】【的】【无】【非】【也】【就】【是】【和】【经】【商】【有】【关】【的】【事】【情】。 【楚】【国】【和】【迭】【州】【十】【三】【部】【有】【些】【来】【往】，【极】【少】【数】【商】【人】【为】【了】【得】【利】，【会】【往】【返】【其】【间】。【得】【利】【的】【是】【那】【些】【身】【份】【显】【赫】【又】【有】财神凤凰天机图【短】【时】【间】【找】【不】【到】【相】【关】【的】【狐】【狸】，【林】【虎】【也】【没】【办】【法】，【只】【能】【留】【意】【着】【这】【件】【事】【情】。 【月】【狐】【形】【态】【最】【近】【也】【没】【法】【用】。 【因】【为】【肉】【身】【能】【力】【实】【在】【是】【太】【弱】【了】，【不】【过】【林】【虎】【看】【过】【天】【狐】【大】【佬】【发】【威】，【九】【根】【尾】【巴】，【可】【以】【同】【时】【动】【用】【九】【种】【术】【法】，【非】【常】【的】【离】【谱】。 【而】【且】【九】【根】【尾】【巴】【可】【以】【联】【合】【起】【来】，【凝】【聚】【大】【招】。 【自】【己】【虽】【然】【只】【有】【三】【根】【尾】【巴】，【但】【料】【想】【也】【不】【会】【差】【了】，【晚】【点】【去】
【再】【次】【体】【会】【到】【剑】【刃】【划】【过】【腐】【朽】【肉】【体】【的】【感】【觉】，【玩】【家】【沉】【默】【宗】【师】【有】【些】【抑】【制】【不】【住】【自】【己】【身】【体】【的】【颤】【动】。 【哀】【嚎】【着】【的】【扭】【曲】【怪】【物】【在】【他】【的】【眼】【前】【化】【作】【飞】【灰】【散】【去】。 【有】【一】【瞬】【间】，【他】【以】【为】【自】【己】【在】【那】【些】【怪】【物】【的】【脸】【上】【看】【到】【了】【痛】【苦】【的】【表】【情】。 【可】【下】【一】【瞬】，【接】【连】【扑】【上】【来】【的】【下】【一】【只】【怪】【物】【就】【打】【断】【了】【他】【的】【思】【考】。 【怪】【物】【的】【数】【量】【无】【穷】【无】【尽】，【仿】【佛】【不】【会】【有】【尽】【头】。
【空】【架】【着】【顾】【羽】【小】【跑】【着】【踏】【上】【了】【法】【阵】，【脚】【下】【粉】【笔】【的】【光】【开】【始】【闪】【烁】，【周】【围】【的】【空】【间】【开】【始】【变】【得】【模】【糊】【起】【来】，【旁】【边】**【的】【火】【焰】【虚】【化】，【连】【阿】【耶】【娜】【的】【身】【影】【都】【变】【得】【飘】【渺】【了】。 【就】【在】【这】【时】，【站】【在】【法】【阵】【上】【的】【姜】【和】【头】【一】【抬】，【像】【是】【突】【然】【想】【起】【了】【什】【么】，【拨】【开】【挡】【在】【他】【前】【面】【的】【顾】【羽】，【一】【把】【向】【阵】【外】【跑】【去】。 “【姜】【和】，【你】……” 【站】【在】【他】【旁】【边】【的】【苏】【阙】【下】【意】【识】【的】【伸】【出】
【莫】【尘】【已】【经】【离】【开】【了】【迷】【宫】，【并】【且】【回】【到】【了】【自】【己】【的】【房】【间】，【如】【果】【说】【来】【也】【奇】【怪】，【今】【天】【雪】【家】【居】【然】【人】【很】【少】，【自】【己】【一】【路】【回】【来】，【基】【本】【上】【没】【看】【到】【什】【么】【人】。 “【奇】【了】【怪】【了】，【今】【天】【雪】【家】【的】【人】【呢】？”【莫】【尘】【回】【到】【房】【间】【后】【便】【疑】【惑】【了】【起】【来】，【虽】【然】【知】【道】【有】【部】【分】【原】【因】【是】【因】【为】【自】【己】，【但】【也】【不】【至】【于】【整】【个】【白】【家】【现】【在】【剩】【不】【到】【几】【十】【人】【吧】。 【就】【算】【去】【全】【力】【搜】【查】【自】【己】，【也】【不】【用】【出】